NCERT Solutions for Class 9th History
Chapter 1. French Revolution
1. French Revolution
Q1. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
(i) Social Inequality
(ii) Subsistence Crisis:
(iii) Economic Problem
(iv) Strong Middle Class
(v) Immediate causes
Q2. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
The richer members of the third estate (the middle class) benefited the most from the French Revolution. The clergy and the nobility were forced to relinquish power. The poorer sections of society and women would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution as the promise of equality was not fulfilled in full measure at the end of the revolution.
Q3. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. It inspired the Germans, Italians, and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes. The French Revolution inspired the struggling nations of Asia and Africa who were groaning under the oppression of European colonialism. Tipu Sultan and Rajaram Mohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to ideas coming from french revolution.
Q4. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Ans: We can trace the origin of the following democratic rights we enjoy today to the french revolution:
(i) Right to Equity
(ii) Right to Freedom
(iii) Freedom of Speech and expression
(iv) Right to form associations
(v) Right to justice and security
Q5. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
The message of universal rights was beset with contradictions:
(i) Many ideals in the "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen" were replete with dubious meanings. For example, "the law has the right to forbid only actions injurious to society" had nothing to say about criminal offences against other individuals.
(ii) The declaration stated that "law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in its formation…All citizens are equal before it", but when France became a constitutional monarchy, almost 3 million citizens including men under the age of 25 and women were not allowed to vote at all.
Hence, by this universal rights poor were suppressed. Constitution is only available for the rich. Women were totally neglected in decision making.
Q6. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
After France became a republic in 1792, the then ruler, Robespeirre, gave more privileges to the wealthier section of society. Further, he was a sort of autocrat himself. This led to reign of terror for the following many years. After Robespeirre’s rule came to an end a directory was formed to avoid concentration of power in one individual. Members of the directory often fought among themselves leading to total chaos and political instability. This created a political vaccum in France. This was a conducive situation and Napoleon Bonaparte took the reign of power as a military dictator.