NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Economics
Chapter 3. Poverty as a challenge
NCERT Exericse :
Q1. Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.
Answer : While determining the poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirement etc. are determined for subsistence.
(i) These physical quantities are multiplied by their prices in rupees. The
present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calorie requirement.
(ii) Food items such as cereals, pulses, vegetable, milk, oil, sugar etc. together provide these needed calories. The calorie needs vary depending on age, sex and the type of work that a person does.
(iii) The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas.
Q2. Do you think that present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
Answer : No, The present methodology of poverty estimation is not appropriate.
Q3. Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.
Answer : In India, poverty ratio declined from about 55 percent in 1993 to 36 percent in 1993. In 2000, the proportion of the poor below the poverty line fell further to 26 percent. If this is the trend then the number of people below the poverty line will fall below 20 percent in the next few years. Although the percentage of people living below the poverty line has fallen in the pre-decades (1973-93), the number of poor people remained steady for a long time around 32 crore. The latest estimates, the reduction in the number of the poor, indicate a significant decline of about 26 million.
Q4. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.
Answer : The major reasons of poverty in India are as follow.
(i) Population - Increase in population at a high rate.
(ii) Exploitation - Because of illiteracy, the exploiters of the workers, laborers and peasants do not give proper wages and the poverty goes on increasing.
(iii) Deficit in land resources and unemployment.
(iv) Social, cognitive and economic factors have also been the leading cause of poverty. For example - spending more money in festivals, religious rituals and wedding ceremonies.
(iv) Highly indebtedness.
Q5. Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
(i) Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households.
(ii) The economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rural
agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.
(iii) Casual workers in urban areas, landless agricultural workers etc.
Q6. Give an account of interstate disparities in poverty in India.
Answer : There are various reasons for disparities in inter-state poverty in India:
(i) This inequality has been low level of economic development since the British colonial administration.
(ii) Neglect of handicrafts, agriculture, domestic industry and textile industries by state governments.
(iii) Many opportunities for employment in the agriculture sector were created by the spread of irrigation and green revolution. But their influence remained limited to some parts of India.
(iv) Both public and private sectors provided some employment. But this could not be enough for all those looking for employment.
(v) In India, more population density states like Assam, Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and UP The lack of land resources has been a major cause of poverty.
Q7. Describe global poverty trends.
Answer : According to the definition of global poverty, according to the definition of the World Bank, according to this, highly economical poverty in developing countries is to live on less than $ 1 per a day. It can be understood by the following points:
(i) Global ratio has fallen from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001.
(ii) The number of poor in China has decreased from 606 million in 1981 to 21.2 million in 2001.
(iii) The decline in the number of poor in countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangla, Bhutan) is not so sharp. The percentage of the poor, despite the decline in the percentage of the poor, declined only from 475 million in 1981 to 42.8 million in 2001.
(iv) Poor poverty in India also exceeds the national estimate due to different poverty line definitions. The proportion of poverty in Latin America is the same. In East Samajwadi countries such as Russia, poverty also recovered, where there was no official official poverty.
Q8. Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation.
Answer : Poverty Alleviation Programmes of India: The important poverty alleviation programmes which are in operation in rural and urban areas are :
(i) Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana (PMRY): PMRY was launched on 2 October 1993. The aim of this programme is to create selfemployment
opportunities for educated youth in rural areas and small towns. They are helped in setting up small business and industries.
(ii)Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) : SGSY was launched on 1 April, 1999. It aims at promoting enterprises at the village level. It helps the rural people to organise themselves into selfhelp groups. The objective of SGSY is to bring the existing poor families above the poverty line by providing them income generation assets through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.
(iii) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) : PMGY was introduced in 2000. Its objective is to focus on village level development in five critical areas, that is, primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural roads. As a result of this, the quality of life of rural people will improve.
(iv) Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojana (SGRY) : This programme was launched in September 2001.
(v) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) : NREGA was passed in September 2005. The Act provides for 100days assured employment to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. However, the results of these programmes have not been very effective. One of the major reasons for their less effectiveness is the lack of proper implementation and right targeting. Also, there has been overlapping of schemes. Therefore, the major emphasis in recent years is on their proper monitoring.
Q9. Answer the following questions briefly
(i) What do you understand by human poverty?
Answer : A person is considered poor, if his income or consumption level falls below any such 'minimum level' which is essential to meet the basic needs such as food, clothing and housing. That is, the person is poor who is not able to meet the basic needs required for the sustenance of these lives.
(ii) Who are the poorest of the poor?
Answer : Women, children, especially girls and old people are the poorest of the poor because they have nothing to do with their income, they depend on other people in the family.
(iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?
Answer : The following are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme Act 2005.
(i) Every family has 100 days employment guarantee in 200 districts.
(ii) This scheme is reserved for one-third of working women.
(iii) The Central Government will also set up the National Employment Guarantee Fund.
(iv) If employment is not provided within 15 days then unemployment allowance will also be available.