NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Science
Chapter 9. THE LIVING ORGANISMS AND THEIR SURROUNDINGS
The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings
Q – by which organs does the fish breathe in?
A – Gills.
Q – What is habitat?
A - The surroundings where organisms live is called a habitat.
Q – What is adaptation?
A - The presence of specific features or certain habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in its surroundings, is called adaptation.
Q – What is terrestrial habitat?
A - The plants and animals that live on land are said to live in terrestrial habitats.
Q – What is aquatic habitats?
A – Plants and animals that live in water are called aquatic habitats. Ponds, swamps, lakes, rivers and oceans are some examples of aquatic habitats.
Q – What are biotic components?
A – The living things such as plants and animals, in a habitat, are its biotic components.
Q – What are abiotic components?
A – Various non-living things such as rocks, soil, air and water in the habitat constitute its abiotic components.
Q – What is germination?
A – Germination is the beginning of a new plant, when the seed turned into a sprout, This process is called germination.
Q – What is the cause of diversity of organisms in various habitats?
A – There change in abiotic factors of various habitats. Animals adapt to different abiotic factors in different ways. Those animals which cannot adapt to these changes die out, and only the adapted ones survive. The result is variety of organisms present in different habitats.
Q – List the common characteristics of the living things.
A – Living things need food, they respire and, excrete, respond to their environment, reproduce, grow and show movement.
Q - There are some sea animals like dolphins and whales that do not have gills, by which organs do they breathe in?
A – They breathe in air through nostrils or blowholes.
Q – What is excretion?
A – The process of getting rid of these wastes by the living organisms is known as excretion.
Q – What is stimuli?
A – Changes in our surroundings that makes us respond to them, are called stimuli.
Q – Name any desert plants.
A – cactus.
Q – By which part of cactus does the process of photosynthesis take place?
A - Photosynthesis in cactus is usually carried out by the stems.
Q – Write two functions of stem in cactus.
- Photosynthesis in cactus is usually carried out by the stems.
- The stem helps to retain water.
Q – What is acclimatisation?
A – Small changes that take place in the body of a single organism over short periods, to overcome small problems due to changes in the surroundings, are called acclimatisation.
Q – How are cactus adapted to survive in a desert?
A – Cactus is a desert palnt in which leaves are absent or very small. This helps in reducing loss of water from the leaves through transpiration. The leaf-like structure you see in a cactus is, in fact, its stem. Photosynthesis in these plants is usually carried out by the stems. The stem is also covered with a thick waxy layer, which helps to retain water. Thus cactus adapted to survive in a desert.